Product: iOS 10.2.1
Platform: iPhone 7 Plus
Hardening: Default Configuration
Scenario: iCloud User on Idle

Setup

After erasing all settings and content, iPhone 7 Plus got us started with a welcome screen. When setting up, in principle, we used only the recommended settings (as identified by titles with bigger size, or simply advertised as recommended). First, we joined the device to WiFi. Then, we enabled Location Services. Afterward, we configuted Touch ID. When asked, we provided a strong password. Then we selected to configure this device as a new device to eliminate chances of any taint from a previous user or configuration. Next, we were asked our iCloud login, which we provided. We agreed to the legal terms after making sure that zero exhaust testing doesn't violate the license agreement. Next, we were presented with Apple Wallet setup, for which we didn't enter a credit card. We enabled iCloud Key Chain. Next, we enabled Siri. Then, we allowed sending diagnostics information to Apple. Finally, we allowed sharing App Analytics with Developers. When the device completed user setup, we checked for updates and confirmed that there were no pending updates. Afterwards, we started capturing network traffic on a wireless bridge that we set up earlier. During the capture, we sent and received both SMS messages and voice calls. However, we have not visited any websites nor ran any other applications.

Comments

iPhone with iOS 10, when using default settings, is not primarily an enterprise device. As such, it is fairly liberal with its connections to various servers to ensure a rich and connected user experience. Most of the traffic was easily justifiable because they were to push notification servers, time server or update servers. It is noteworthy that iPad contained all its network communication with one country only, United States.

Results

 Duration of Capture
 Start Date
 Stop Data
 Packets to Internet
 Bytes to Internet
 Total Countries

Network Activities Number of packets and size in kilobytes

Below chart plots total kilobytes sent to public Internet addresses over the entire capture time. Each data point is broken by networking protocol, such as HTTP or FTP.

Although DNS queries are quite common, depending on your network topology, you may not see DNS in below list. The probable reason for that is because you use an internal DNS server. Some companies may prefer using their own DNS servers because of extra flexibility it gives. In case of home users, it is very common that your Internet router is being used as the DNS server of your computer. Since in both cases the DNS server is within your own network, DNS queries to them will not be reported as traffic going to Internet.

There are two fundamental reasons

1. In order to send correct and relavent data, servers must know clients' configuration. For example, to provide the updates that your computer needs, update servers will need to know version of your product, as well as your hardware configuration.

2. Before downloading data, client and server will exchange specifics of the transfer. For example, at the beginning of the communication, client and server will establish a transmission channel by exchanging their respective sequence numbers. Additionally, communications over a secure channel requires the collaboration of the client. For example, client sends the encryption protocols it supports, or whether or not it agrees to the options provided by the server. Also, certain communication protocols like TCP require client to acknowledge receipt of data sent by server so that server knows whether or not it needs to retransmit the data. Although these so-called ACK (for acknowledgement) are small in size, they are frequent, adding up to total traffic that is sent to the server.

Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is the underlying tranmission protocol for most Internet bound packets. TCP is usually used as a transport control mechanism for higher level protocols (e.g. HTTP or FTP). We only report TCP if no higher level protocol was detected.

User Datagram Protocol (UDP), similar to TCP, is another fundamental tranmission protocol. UDP is usually used as a transport control mechanism for higher level protocols (e.g. DNS). We only report UDP if no higher level protocol was detected.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is the backbone of web traffic. Please keep in mind that although HTTP is best known for transferring data back and forth from web sites, it is commonly used as a general purpose transfer mechanism when accessing web services (e.g. weather data, checking and downloading updates, anti-virus definition downloads)

Network Time Protocol (NTP) helps keeping your computers time in sync with highly accurate atomic clocks.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP) is used for transferring files. It is commonly used for downloading updates.

Domain Name System (DNS) is used for resolving names (e.g. www.example.com) to their IP addresses (34.76.112.34).

Please refer to Understanding Computer Networks for a more detailed explanation of how computer networks work and what the different types of packages do.

Hosts and Protocols Number of packets and size in bytes

Below tables list where your traffic goes and what kind of networking protocols are being used. What makes Traffic Hound based reports unique is the highly accurate hostname informations. Most other tools either do a reverse-DNS lookup (which is bad because IP assignments change frequently and a reverse lookup may yield stale information) or only a superficial analysis of DNS packets captured earlier (which only gives CDN locations like edge.akamai.com instead of the intended destination) Traffic Hound performs a deep analysis of DNS traffic, extracts CNAME records so that intended destination names can be reported.

Moreover, Traffic Hound extracts IPv6 over IPv4 Teredo tunnels, so that real protocol information can be captured instead of the default UDP for all tunnelled IPv6 traffic.

Internet
Destinations
Total
Packets
% Total
Bytes
% Vote
Protocol Total
Packets
% Total
Bytes
%

Traffic location geo-presentation

IP address geo-location is based on heuristics. Geo-location providers use a number of databases. A primary source for IP address data is the Regional Internet Registries. These are large, official organizations responsible for managing and distributing IP addresses in specific regions of the world. However there are other sources that is employed, some of these being trade secrets of providers. Although some of these databases are high confidence, sometimes location resolutio may need to employ less accurate, low confidence resources.

We use industry standard www.MaxMind.com IP Geo-Location service to resolve location information. It is one of the most respected service providers in this field. We frequently compare their results with competitors to ensure their accuracy.

Below table outlines number of outgoing packets and bytes to each country.

Country Total Packets % Total Bytes %

Details

Below data can dynamically be filtered by clicking on regions in the map above.

To (Geo Location) To (Host Name) To (IP) Protocol Total Bytes

Comments? Questions?

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